A Note about the IEQ Project

The Center for Islamic Sciences (CIS), Canada, launched an international project in 2009 to produce the first English language Encyclopedia of the Qur’an exclusively based on Islamic sources: The Integrated Encyclopedia of the Qur’an (IEQ). The first volume was published in 2013 and received wide-ranging recognition as a superb work of scholarship. CIS has now reconfigured the IEQ project as an open-access online work. With this move, IEQ is now globally available free of charge.

IEQ assumes serious engagement but no prior knowledge of the Qur’an or Arabic. It employs English-language lemmata and its extensive cross-referencing facilitates a fuller understanding of the message of the Qur’an. It draws its entries from the thematic structure of the Qur’an, integrates fourteen centuries of scholarship, and presents a breadth of authoritative knowledge exclusively based on Islamic sources. With almost one fifth of its anticipated 515 entries completed, IEQ provides an unmatched source for gaining an in-depth understanding of Qur’anic concepts as well as specific persons, places, events and things mentioned in the Qurʾān.

For more information about the project, please click here

Introduction to Volume 1

Read the Introduction to Volume 1.


The Integrated Encyclopedia of the Qurʾān devotes individual entries to most concepts, persons, places, events, and things mentioned in the Qurʾān, but in some cases these may be subsumed under another entry or combined into a single entry. For instance, discussion of abortion is found under Child-Bearing; the pre-Islamic chieftain Abraha is not mentioned in the Qurʾān by name but appears in the exegetical and biographical literature in reference to Q 105 (al-Fīl, “the Elephant”), and so is discussed under the entry People of the Elephant. Blind entries direct readers to the appropriate title (e.g., “Anti-Christ, see Dajjāl”; “Apocalypse, see Resurrection”). The entry on Animals, meanwhile, treats all thirty-two animals and categories of animals mentioned in the Qurʾān in a single entry.

It employs English-language lemmata for most of its entries, but certain Qurʾānic terms as well as all Qurʾānic proper names have been retained in original Arabic form because of their distinct semantic associations. Recognizing that this may pose difficulties to readers unfamiliar with the original names or terms, entries are extensively cross-referenced and internally related. Thus the entry for Prophet ʿĪsā, upon him peace, is found alphabetically under “I”, with cross-references under “C” (“Christ, see ʿĪsā”) and “J” (“Jesus, see ʿĪsa”); the entry for the distinctive Islamic term iḥsān is listed alphabetically, with cross-references at “Excellence” and “Perfection”. Likewise, the entry for Laylat al-qadr is listed under Night of Qadr and cross-referenced at the common approximations (“Night of Destiny”, “Night of Power”).

In certain cases, this convention may not appear straightforward. For instance, Hijra, Anṣār, and Muhājirūn can respectively be translated as “Emigration”, “Helpers”, and “Emigrants”; but their distinctive Islamic usage is lost in this generalizing translation because these Qurʾānic terms refer to a specific event and specific groups of people respectively. These terms are thus transliterated, not translated, while their approximate English renditions provide cross-references. IEQ entries often provide both translations and transliterations of key terms or turns of phrase, in order to at once facilitate research and accessibility. Arabic words which have become part of the English language and are found in major dictionaries are not italicized, including such words as Hajj, Hijra, Ramadan, Sunna, and sura.

Finally, cross-references within each entry indicated by (q.v.)—quod vide—direct readers to additional entries pertaining to the topic under discussion. For example:

They had lived in Yathrib (q.v.) for many generations before the Hijra (q.v.) of the Prophet to their city in 622 CE. They were two distinct parts of the first Islamic polity in Madina (q.v.) which came into existence through the fusion of these two communities, establishing a high level of spiritual kinship, mutual support, and friendship.

Bibliographic References

A key feature of IEQ is its extensive documentation based on classical and traditional sources. References to the Qurʾān provide sura and verse numbers, and all translations from the Qurʾān are italicized without being bound by quotation marks. Thus Q 2:6 refers to the sixth verse of Sūrat al-Baqara: As for the disbelievers, it is the same for them whether you warn them or warn them not: they do not believe.

Frequently cited sources are abbreviated. Where a publication does not contain the Common Era date, only the Hijri date is given.

In-line references to Qurʾān commentaries provide the author name and title followed by reference to the Qurʾānic verse commented upon, unless it is implicit from the context. For example:

The calligraphy of the basmala developed into an ornate genre in its own right, partly due to its merits and ritual significance. The Umayyad caliph ʿUmar b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz (ca.62-101/682-720; r. 98-101/717-720), an eminent scholar in his own right and great-grandson of ʿUmar b. Al-Khaṭṭāb, used to tell his calligraphers: “Honoring the speech of Allah Most High, lengthen the bāʾ, write the sīn distinctively, keep a distance between [the two letters], and make the mīm circular” (Thaʿlabī, Kashf, fī faḍl al-tasmiya, sub Q 1:1; Zamakhsharī, Kashshāf, sub Q 1:1). Abū Khālid b. Yazīd al-Murādī comments that the reason why the bāʾ is lengthened is that the alif is elided, its length being incorporated into the bāʾ (Zamakhsharī, Kashshāf).

In-line references to Hadith collections and commentaries similarly provide the author name, title of the book, and bāb. The titles of the following hadith collections are often presumed (and only seldom listed when needed for additional clarity): the Muwaṭṭāʾ of Imam Mālik, Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī, Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim, the Sunans of Ibn Mājah, Abū Dāwūd, al-Tirmidhī, and al-Nasāʾī, and the Musnad of Aḥmad b. Ḥanbal. For example:

ʿUmar b. al-Khaṭṭāb saw a similar dream (Tirmidhī, Ṣalāt, mā jāʾa fī badʾ al-adhān; Ibn Ḥajar, Fatḥ al-bārī, qawluhu bāb badʾ al-adhān; Aḥmad, Musnad Abī Bakr al-Ṣiddīq 1:218 §45).

In-line references to lexicons note the consonantal root, unless it is implicit from the context. For example:

The Qurʾānic collective noun for birds, al-ṭayr, is mentioned twenty times (singular ṭāʾir, plural ṭayr, ṭuyūr, and aṭyār). Lexically, al-ṭayr refers to “two-winged animals that fly,” though the category includes flightless birds (Ibn Manẓūr, Lisān, sub ṭ-y-r).

Animals, dawābb, singular dābba, often used specifically for mounts, from the root d-b-b, contracted verbal form dabba, “to tread the earth,” aortive yadibbu, infinitive noun dabīb (Jawharī, Ṣiḥāḥ).

Verse, bāb, and consonantal root references respectively suffice in lieu of page numbers for Qurʾān commentaries, hadith collections, and lexicons, given the multiple editions (and hence conflicting paginations) often available. All other in-line references provide volume and page numbers—for example, “Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, al-Istīʿāb 2:747-748” and, for single-volume works, “Ibn Jubayr, Riḥla p. 127.”

Abbreviations of Frequently Cited Works

ʿAbd al-Bāqī. Muʿjam =

ʿAbd al-Bāqī, Muḥammad Fuʾād. al-Muʿjam al-mufahras li-alfāẓ al-Qurʾān al-karīm. Cairo: Dār al-Ḥadīth, 1428/2007.

ʿAbd al-Razzāq. Muṣannaf =

ʿAbd al-Razzāq b. Hammām al-Ṣanʿānī. al-Muṣannaf. With Maʿmar b. Rāshid al-Baṣrī, al-Jāmiʿ. Ed. Ḥabīb al-Raḥmān al-Aʿẓamī. 2nd ed. 11 vols. Beirut: al-Maktab al-Islāmī, 1403/1983.

ʿAbd al-Razzāq. Tafsīr =

ʿAbd al-Razzāq b. Hammām al-Ṣanʿānī. Tafsīr ʿAbd al-Razzāq. Ed. Maḥmūd Muḥammad ʿAbduh. 3 vols. Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmiyya, 1419/1999.

Abū Dāwūd. Sunan =

Abū Dāwūd Sulaymān b. al-Ashʿath al-Azdī al-Sijistānī. Sunan. Ed. Muḥammad ʿAwwāma. 5 vols. 2nd ed. Jeddah: Dār al-Qibla lil-Thaqāfat al-Islāmiyya; Beirut: Muʾassasat al-Rayyān, 1419/1998.

Abū Ḥayyān. Baḥr =

Abū Ḥayyān al-Andalusī, Muḥammad b. Yūsuf. Tafsīr al-Baḥr al-muḥīṭ. Ed. ʿĀdil Aḥmad ʿAbd al-Mawjūd et al. 8 vols. Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmiyya, 1413/1993.

Abū al-Suʿūd. Irshād =

Abū al-Suʿūd Muḥammad b. Muḥammad al-ʿImādī. Tafsīr Abū al-Suʿūd al-musammā Irshād al-ʿaql al-salīm ilā mazāyā al-Qurʾān al-karīm. 9 vols. in 4. Ed. Ḥasan Aḥmad Marʿī and Muḥammad al-Ṣādiq al-Qamḥāwī. 2nd ed. Beirut: Dār Iḥyāʾ al-Turāth al-ʿArabī, 1411/1990.

Abū ʿUbayd. Gharīb =

Abū ʿUbayd al-Qāsim b. Sallām al-Harawī. Kitāb Gharīb al-ḥadīth. Ed. Ḥusayn Muḥammad Muḥammad Sharaf. 6 vols. Cairo: al-Hayʾat al-ʿĀmma li-Shuʾūn al-Maṭābiʿ al-Amīriyya, 1403/1983.

Abū ʿUbayda. Majāz =

Abū ʿUbayda al-Taymī, Maʿmar b. al-Muthannā. Majāz al-Qur’ān. Ed. Muḥammad Fuʾād Sezgin. 2 vols. Cairo: al-Khānjī, 1374-1381/1954-62. Rept. Beirut: Muʾassasat al-Risāla, 1401/1981.

Aḥmad. Musnad =

Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. Ḥanbal. al-Musnad. Ed. Shuʿayb al-Arnaʾūṭ et al. 50 vols. Beirut: Muʾassasat al-Risāla, 1999-2001.

Ālūsī. Rūḥ =

al-Ālūsī, Abū al-Faḍl Shihāb al-Dīn al-Sayyid Maḥmūd b. ʿAbdallāh. Rūḥ al-maʿānī fī tafsīr al-Qurʾān al-ʿaẓīm wal-sabʿ al-mathānī. 30 vols. in 15. Cairo: Idārat al-Ṭibāʿat al-Munīriyya, 1345⁄1926. Rept. Beirut: Dār Iḥyāʾ al-Turāth al-ʿArabī, [1970?].

ʿAskarī. Furūq =

al-ʿAskarī, Abū Hilāl al-Ḥasan b. ʿAbdullāh b. Sahl. al-Furūq al-lughawiyya. Ed. Muḥammad Ibrāhīm Salīm. Cairo: Dār al-ʿIlm wal-Thaqāfa, [1418/1998].

ʿAskarī. Wujūh =

al-ʿAskarī, Abū Hilāl al-Ḥasan b. ʿAbdullāh b. Sahl. al-Wujūh wal-naẓāʾir li-Abī Hilāl al-ʿAskarī. Cairo: Maktabat al-Thaqāfat al-Dīniyya, 1428/2007.

Azharī. Tahdhīb =

al-Azharī, Abū Manṣūr Muḥammad b. Aḥmad. Tahdhīb al-lugha. Ed. ʿAbd al-Salām Muḥammad Hārūn et al. 15 vols. Cairo: al-Dār al-Miṣriyya lil-Taʾlīf wal-Tarjama, 1966.

Baghawī. Tafsīr =

al-Baghawī, Abū Muḥammad al-Ḥusayn b. Masʿūd al-Farrāʾ. Tafsīr al-Baghawī al-musammā Maʿālim al-tanzīl. Ed. ʿAbd al-Razzāq al-Mahdī. 5 vols. Beirut: Dār Iḥyāʾ al-Turāth al-ʿArabī, 1420/2000.

Bayḍāwī. Tafsīr =

al-Bayḍāwī, Nāṣir al-Dīn Abū Saʿīd ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿUmar. Tafsīr al-Bayḍāwī al-musammā Anwār al-tanzīl wa-asrār al-taʾwīl. Ed. Muḥammad Ṣubḥī b. Ḥasan Ḥallāq and Maḥmūd Aḥmad al-Aṭrash. 3 vols. Damascus: Dār al-Rashīd; Beirut: Muʾassasat al-Īmān, 2000.

Bayhaqī. Sunan =

al-Bayhaqī, Abū Bakr Aḥmad b. al-Ḥusayn. al-Sunan al-kubrā. With Ibn al-Turkmānī’s al-Jawhar al-naqy. 10 vols. Hyderabad, Deccan: Maṭbaʿat Majlis Dāʾirat al-Maʿārif al-ʿUthmāniyya, 1355/1937.

Bazzār. Musnad =

al-Bazzār, Abū Bakr Aḥmad b. ʿUmar b. ʿAbd al-Khāliq al-ʿUtaykī. al-Baḥr al-zakhkhār al-maʿrūf bi-Musnad al-Bazzār. Ed. Maḥfūẓ al-Raḥmān Zayn Allāh and ʿĀdil b. Saʿd. 15 vols. Beirut: Muʾassasat ʿUlūm al-Qurʾān; Madīna: Maktabat al-ʿUlūm wal-Ḥikam, 1409-1427/1988-2006.

Biqāʿī. Naẓm =

al-Biqāʿī, Burhān al-Dīn Abū al-Ḥasan Ibrāhīm b. ʿUmar. Naẓm al-durar fī tanāsub al-āyāt wal-suwar. 22 vols. Hyderabad: Dāʾirat al-Maʿārif al-Niẓāmiyya, 1976. Rept. Cairo: Dār al-Kitāb al-Islāmī, 1404/1984.

Bukhārī. Ṣaḥīḥ =

al-Bukhārī, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. Ismāʿīl b. Ibrāhīm b. al-Mughīra al-Juʿfī. al-Jāmiʿ al-ṣaḥīḥ: wa-huwa al-Jāmiʿ al-musnad al-ṣaḥīḥ al-mukhtaṣar min umūr Rasūl Allāh ṣallā Allāh ʿalayh wa-sallam wa-sunanih wa-ayyāmih. Ed. Muḥammad al-Zuhrī al-Ghamrāwī. 8 vols. in 3. 2nd ed. Būlāq: al-Maṭbaʿat al-Kubrā al-Amīriyya, 1314/1896. Rept. Cairo: al-Maṭbaʿat al-Maymūniyya [Muṣṭafā Bābā al-Ḥalabī et al.], 1323/1905.

Burūsawī. Rūḥ =

al-Burūsawī al-Istanbūlī, Abū al-Fidāʾ Ismāʿīl Ḥaqqī b. Muṣṭafā. Tafsīr Rūḥ al-bayān. 10 vols. [Istanbul]: al-Maṭbaʿat al-ʿUthmāniyya, 1912-1928.

Dāmaghānī. Wujūh wal-naẓāʾir =

al-Dāmaghānī, Abū ʿAbd Allāh al-Ḥusayn b. Muḥammad. al-Wujūh wal-naẓāʾir li-alfāẓ Kitāb Allāh al-ʿAzīz. Ed. ʿArabī ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd ʿAlī. Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmiyya, 1424/2003.

Dārimī. Sunan =

al-Dārimī, Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. al-Faḍl b. Bahrām. Sunan al-Dārimī. Ed. Muṣṭafā Dīb al-Bughā. 2 vols. Damascus: Dār al-Qalam, 1412/1991.

al-Dhahabī. Siyar =

al-Dhahabī, Shams al-Dīn Muḥammad b. Aḥmad. Siyar aʿlām al-nubalāʾ. Ed. Shuʿayb al-Arnaʾūṭ. 11th ed. 25 vols. Beirut: Muʾassasat al-Risāla, 1417/1996.

Fārābī. Dīwān =

al-Fārābī, Abū Ibrāhīm Isḥāq b. Ibrāhīm. Dīwān al-adab. Ed. Aḥmad Mukhtār ʿUmar and Ibrāhīm Anīs. 4 vols. in 5. Cairo: al-Hay’at al-ʿĀmma li-Shuʾūn al-Maṭābiʿ al-Amīriyya, 1394-1399/1974-1979.

Farāhīdī. ʿAyn =

al-Farāhīdī, Abū ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Khalīl b. Aḥmad. Kitāb al-ʿAyn. Ed. Mahdī al-Makhzūmī and Ibrāhīm al-Sāmarrāʾī. 8 vols. [Baghdād]: al-Jumhūriyyat al-ʿIrāqiyya, Wizārat al-Thaqāfa wal-Iʿlām, Dār al-Rashīd: Tawzīʿ al-Dār al-Waṭaniyya, 1980-1985.

Farrāʾ. Maʿānī =

al-Farrāʾ, Abū Zakariyyā Yaḥyā b. Ziyād. Maʿānī al-Qurʾān. Ed. Muḥammad ʿAlī al-Najjār and Aḥmad Yūsuf Najātī. 3rd ed. 3 vols. Beirut: ʿĀlam al-Kutub, 1403/1983.

Fayrūzābādī. Baṣāʾir =

al-Fayrūzābādī, Majd al-Dīn Muḥammad b. Yaʿqūb. Baṣāʾir dhawī al-tamyīz fī laṭāʾif al-Kitāb al-ʿazīz. Ed. Muḥammad ʿAlī al-Najjār. 6 vols. Beirut: al-Maktabat al-ʿIlmiyya, ca.1980.

Fayrūzābādī. Qāmūs =

al-Fayrūzābādī, Majd al-Dīn Muḥammad b. Yaʿqūb. al-Qāmūs al-muḥīt. 4 vols. 3rd ed. Cairo: al-Matbaʿat al-Amīriyya, 1301/1884. Rept. Cairo: al-Hayʾat al-Miṣriyya lil-Kitāb, 1400/1980.

Fayyūmī. Miṣbāḥ =

al-Fayyūmī, Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. ʿAlī al-Maqqarī. al-Miṣbāḥ al-munīr fī gharīb al-Sharḥ al-kabīr lil-Rāfiʿī. 2 vols. in 1. Cairo: Maṭbaʿat al-Taqaddum al-ʿIlmiyya, 1322/1904.

Ghazālī. Iḥyāʾ =

al-Ghazālī, Abū Hāmid Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. Aḥmad. Iḥyāʾ ʿulūm al-dīn. 10 vols. Jeddah: Dār al-Minhāj lil-Nashr wal-Tawzīʿ, 1432/2011.

Ghazālī/Zabīdī. Iḥyāʾ/Itḥāf =

al-Ghazālī, Abū Hāmid Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. Aḥmad. Iḥyāʾ ʿulūm al-dīn. In al-Zabīdī, Muḥammad b. Muḥammad Murtaḍā. Itḥāf al-sādat al-muttaqīn bi-sharḥ asrār Iḥyāʾ ʿulūm al-dīn. With the text of the Iḥyāʾ in the margins, ʿAbd al-Qādir b. ʿAbd Allāh al-ʿAydarūs Bā ʿAlawī’s Taʿrīf al-aḥyāʾ bi-faḍāʾil al-Iḥyāʾ, and al-Ghazālī’s al-Imlāʾ ʿan ishkālāt al-Iḥyāʾ. 10 vols. Cairo: al-Maṭbaʿat al-Maymaniyya, 1311/1893.

Ḥākim. Mustadrak =

al-Ḥākim al-Naysābūrī, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh b. al-Bayyiʿ. al-Mustadrak ʿalā al-Ṣaḥīḥayn. With al-Dhahabī’s Talkhīṣ al-Mustadrak. 5 vols. Indices by Yūsuf ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Marʿashlī. Beirut: Dār al-Maʿrifa, 1986. Rept. of the 1334/1916 Hyderabad edition.

Haythamī. Majmaʿ =

al-Haythamī, ʿAlī b. Abī Bakr. Majmaʿ al-zawāʾid wa-manbaʿ al-fawāʾid. 10 vols. Cairo: Dār al-Rayyān lil-Turāth, 1407/1987.

Ḥumaydī. Musnad =

al-Ḥumaydī, Abū Bakr ʿAbd Allāh b. al-Zubayr b. ʿĪsā al-Asadī. Musnad al-Imām Abī Bakr ʿAbd Allāh b. al-Zubayr al-Qurashī al-Ḥumaydī. Ed. Ḥusayn Salīm Asad al-Dārānī. 2 vols. Damascus and Dārayyā: Dār al-Saqqā, 1996.

Ibn Abī Ḥātim. Tafsīr =

Ibn Abī Ḥātim, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Muḥammad b. Idrīs al-Rāzī. Tafsīr al-Qurʾān al-ʿaẓīm musnadan ʿan Rasūl Allāh ṣallā Allāh ʿalayh wa-sallam wal-Ṣaḥāba wal-Tābiʿīn. Ed. Asʿad Muḥammad al-Ṭayyib. 14 vols. Makka and Riyadh: Maktabat Nizār Muṣṭafā al-Bāz, 1417/1997.

Ibn Abī Shayba. Muṣannaf =

Ibn Abī Shayba al-ʿAbsī al-Kūfī, Abū Bakr ʿAbd Allāh b. Muḥammad. al-Muṣannaf. Ed. Muḥammad ʿAwwāma. 26 vols. Jeddah: Dār al-Qibla lil-Thaqāfat al-Islāmiyya; Damascus: Muʾassasat ʿUlūm al-Qurʾān, 1427/2006.

Ibn Abī Zamanīn. Tafsīr =

Ibn Abī Zamanīn al-Mālikī, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿĪsā. Tafsīr al-Qurʾān al-ʿazīz. Ed. Abū ʿAbd Allāh Ḥusayn b. ʿUkāsha and Muḥammad b. Muṣṭafā al-Kanz. 5 vols. Cairo: al-Fārūq al-Ḥadītha lil-Ṭibāʿa wal-Nashr, 1423/2002.

Ibn ʿĀdil. Lubāb =

Ibn ʿĀdil al-Dimashqī al-Ḥanbalī, Abū Ḥafṣ ʿUmar b. ʿAlī. al-Lubāb fī ʿulūm al-Kitāb. Ed. ʿĀdil Aḥmad ʿAbd al-Mawjūd et al. 20 vols. Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmiyya, 1419/1998.

Ibn ʿAjība. Baḥr =

Ibn ʿAjība al-Ḥasanī al-Idrīsī al-Shādhilī al-Fāsī, Abū al-ʿAbbād Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. al-Mahdī. al-Baḥr al-madīd fī tafsīr al-Kitāb al-majīd. 8 vols. 2nd ed. Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmiyya, 1423/2002.

Ibn al-Anbārī. Aḍdād =

Ibn al-Anbārī, Abū Bakr Muḥammad b. al-Qāsim b. Muḥammad. Kitāb al-Aḍdād. Ed. Muḥammad Abū al-Faḍl Ibrāhīm. Sidon: al-Maktabat al-ʿAṣriyya, 1407/1987.

Ibn al-Anbārī. Zāhir =

Ibn al-Anbārī, Abū Bakr Muḥammad b. al-Qāsim b. Muḥammad. al-Zāhir fī maʿānī kalimāt al-nās. Ed. Ḥātim Ṣāliḥ al-Ḍāmin. 2 vols. Beirut: Muʾassasat al-Risāla, 1412/1992.

Ibn al-ʿArabī. Aḥkām =

Ibn al-ʿArabī, Abū Bakr Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh. Aḥkām al-Qurʾān. Ed. Muḥammad ʿAbd al-Qādir ʿAṭā. 4 vols. 3rd ed. Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmiyya, 1424/2003.

Ibn ʿĀshūr. Tafsīr =

Ibn ʿĀshūr, Muḥammad al-Ṭāhir. Tafsīr al-Taḥrīr wal-tanwīr. 30 vols. Tunis: al-Dār al-Tūnisiyya lil-Nashr, 1984.

Ibn al-Athīr. Nihāya =

Ibn al-Athīr, Majd al-Dīn Abū al-Saʿādāt al-Mubārak b. Muḥammad al-Jazarī. al-Nihāya fī gharīb al-ḥadīth wal-athar. Ed. Ṭāhir Aḥmad al-Zāwī and Maḥmūd Muḥammad al-Ṭanāḥī. 5 vols. Beirut: al-Maktabat al-ʿIlmiyya, 1399/1979.

Ibn al-Athīr. Usd al-ghāba =

Ibn al-Athīr, ʿIzz al-Dīn Abū al-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Abī al-Karam Muḥammad b. Muḥammad al-Jazarī. Usd al-ghāba fī maʿrifat al-Ṣaḥāba. Ed. ʿĀdil Aḥmad al-Rifāʿī. 8 vols. Beirut: Dār Iḥyāʾ al-Turāth al-ʿArabī, 1417/1996.

Ibn ʿAṭiyya. Muḥarrar =

Ibn ʿAṭiyya al-Andalusī, Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd al-Ḥaqq b. Ghālib. al-Muḥarrar al-wajīz fī tafsīr al-Kitāb al-ʿazīz. 6 vols. Ed. ʿAbd al-Salām ʿAbd al-Shāfī Muḥammad. Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmiyya, 1422/2001.

Ibn Durayd. Jamhara =

Ibn Durayd, Abū Bakr Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan. Kitāb Jamharat al-lugha. Ed. Zayn al-ʿĀbidīn al-Mūsawī et al. 4 vols. Hyderabad: Maṭbaʿat Majlis Dāʾirat al-Maʿārif, 1344-1345/1925-1927.

Ibn Fāris. Maqāyīs =

Ibn Fāris, Abū al-Ḥusayn Aḥmad. Muʿjam maqāyīs al-lugha. Ed. ʿAbd al-Salām Hārūn. 6 vols. Beirut: al-Dār al-Islāmiyya, 1410/1990.

Ibn Ḥajar. Fatḥ =

Ibn Ḥajar, Abū al-Faḍl Aḥmad b. ʿAlī al-ʿAsqalānī. Fatḥ al-Bārī. Ed. Muḥammad Fuʾād ʿAbd al-Bāqī and Muḥibb al-Dīn al-Khaṭib. 14 vols. Cairo: Dār al-Rayyān, 1987/1407.

Ibn Ḥajar. Iṣāba =

Ibn Ḥajar, Abū al-Faḍl Aḥmad b. ʿAlī al-ʿAsqalānī. al-Iṣāba fī tamyīz al-Ṣaḥāba. Ed. 8 vols. in 4. Cairo: al-Maṭbaʿat al-Sharafiyya, 1327/1909. Rept. in 5 vols. with indices. Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmiyya, n.d.

Ibn Ḥibbān. Ṣaḥīḥ =

Ibn Ḥibbān al-Bustī, Abū Ḥātim Muḥammad. Ṣaḥīḥ Ibn Ḥibbān bi-tartīb Ibn Balbān. Ed. Shuʿayb al-Arnāʾūṭ. 2nd ed. 18 vols. Beirut: Muʾassasat al-Risāla, 1414/1993.

Ibn Hishām. Sīra =

Ibn Hishām, Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd al-Malik. al-Sīrat al-Nabawiyya. Ed. Muṣṭafā al-Saqqā, Ibrāhīm al-Abyārī, and ʿAbd al-Ḥafīẓ Shalabī. 4 vols. in 2. 2nd ed. Beirut: Dār al-Wifāq, 1375/1955.

Ibn Jamāʿa. Ghurar =

Ibn Jamāʿa al-Kinānī, Badr al-Dīn Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. Ibrāhīm. Ghurar al-tibyān fī-mā lam yusamma fīl-Qurʾān. Ed. ʿAbd al-Jawād Khalaf. Damascus: Dār Qutayba, 1410/1990.

Ibn al-Jawzī. Zād =

Ibn al-Jawzī al-Qurashī al-Baghdādī, Abū al-Faraj Jamāl al-Dīn ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. ʿAlī b. Muḥammad. Zād al-masīr fī ʿilm al-tafsīr. 9 vols. 3rd ed. Beirut: al-Maktab al-Islāmī, 1404/1984.

Ibn Juzay. Tafsīr =

Ibn Juzay al-Kalbī, Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad b. Aḥmad b. Muḥammad. Tafsīr Ibn Juzay [al-Tas-hīl li-ʿulūm al-Tanzīl]. Ed. Lajnat Taḥqīq al-Turāth fī Dār al-Kitāb al-ʿArabī. Beirut: Dār al-Kitāb al-ʿArabī, 1403/1983.

Ibn Kathīr. Tafsīr =

Ibn Kathīr, ʿImād al-Dīn Ismāʿīl b. ʿUmar. Tafsīr al-Qurʾān al-ʿaẓīm. Ed. Muṣṭafā al-Sayyid Muḥammad et al. 15 vols. Jīza: Muʾassasat Qurṭuba, 1421/2000.

Ibn Mājah. Sunan =

Ibn Mājah, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. Yazīd. Sunan Ibn Mājah bi-Sharḥ al-Imām Abī al-Ḥasan al-Sindī. With Aḥmad b. Abī Bakr al-Būṣīrī’s Miṣbāḥ al-zujāja fī zawāʾid Ibn Mājah. Ed. Khalīl Maʾmūn Shīḥā. 5 vols. Beirut: Dār al-Maʿrifa, 1416/1996.

Ibn Manẓūr. Lisān =

Ibn Manẓūr, Abū al-Faḍl Jamāl al-Dīn Muḥammad b. Mu­karram. Lisān al-ʿArab. 15 vols. Beirut: Dār Ṣādir, [1968].

Ibn al-Mundhir. Tafsīr =

Ibn al-Mundhir al-Naysābūrī, Abū Bakr Muḥammad b. Ibrāhīm. Kitāb tafsīr al-Qurʾān. Ed. Saʿd b. Muḥmmad al-Saʿd. 2 vols. al-Madīnat al-Nabawiyya: Dār al-Maʾāthir, 1423/2002.

Ibn Qudāma. Mughnī =

Ibn Qudāma, Muwaffaq al-Dīn Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd Allāh b. Aḥmad b. Muḥammad al-Maqdisī al-Jammāʿilī al-Dimashqī. al-Mughnī. Ed. ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿAbd al-Muḥsin al-Turkī and ʿAbd al-Fattāḥ Muḥammad al-Ḥilū. 15 vols. 3rd ed. Riyadh: Dār ʿĀlam al-Kutub, 1417/1997.

Ibn Qutayba. Gharīb =

Ibn Qutayba, Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd Allāh b. Muslim al-Dīnawarī. Tafsīr gharīb al-Qurʾān. Ed. Sayyid Aḥmad Ṣaqr. Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmiyya, 1398/1978.

Ibn Saʿd. Ṭabaqāt =

Ibn Saʿd b. Manīʿ al-Zuhrī, Muḥammad. al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā. Ed. ʿAlī Muḥammad ʿUmar. 11 vols. Cairo: Maktabat al-Khānjī, 1421/2001.

Ibn Sīda. Muḥkam =

Ibn Sīda, ʿAlī b. Ismāʿīl. al-Muḥkam wal-muḥīṭ al-aʿẓam fī-l-lugha. Ed. Ḥusayn Naṣṣār et al. 7 vols. Cairo: Maʿhad al-Makhṭūṭāt bi-Jāmiʿat al-Duwal al-ʿArabiyya, 1377/1958.

Ibn Sīda. Mukhaṣṣaṣ =

Ibn Sīda, ʿAlī b. Ismāʿīl. al-Mukhaṣṣaṣ. Ed. Muḥammad Maḥmūd al-Tirkizī al-Shinqīṭī and ʿAbd al-Ghanī Maḥmūd al-Azharī. 17 vols. Cairo: al-Maṭbaʿa al-Amīriyya, 1321/1903. Reprt. Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmiyya, n.d.

ʿIyāḍ. Shifā =

ʿIyāḍ b. Mūsā al-Yaḥṣubī, al-Qāḍī Abū l-Faḍl. al-Shifā bi-taʿrīf ḥuqūq al-Muṣṭafā. Ed. ʿAbduh ʿAlī Kawshak. Damascus: Maktabat al-Ghazālī; Beirut: Dār al-Fayḥāʾ, 1420/2000.

Jalālayn. Tafsīr =

Jalāl al-Dīn Muḥammad b. Aḥmad al-Maḥallī and Jalāl al-Dīn ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Abī Bakr al-Suyūṭī. Tafsīr al-Qurʾān al-ʿaẓīm. With Suyūṭī, Lubāb al-nuqūl fī asbāb al-nuzūl and Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. Ḥazm, Maʿrifat al-nāsikh wal-mansūkh. 2 vols. Cairo: al-Maṭbaʿat al-Azhariyya al-Miṣriyya, 1301-1303/1884-1886.

Jaṣṣāṣ. Aḥkām =

al-Jaṣṣāṣ, Aḥmad b. ʿAlī Abū Bakr al-Rāzī. Tafsīr aḥkām al-Qurʾān. Ed. ʿAbd al-Salām Muḥammad ʿAlī Shāhīn. 3 vols. Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmiyya, 1415/1994.

Jawharī. Ṣiḥāḥ =

al-Jawharī, Ismāʿīl b. Ḥammād. al-Ṣiḥāḥ: Tāj al-lugha wa-ṣiḥāḥ al-ʿarabiyya. Ed. Aḥmad ʿAbd al-Ghafūr ʿAṭṭār. 7 vols. 4th ed. Beirut: Dār al-ʿIlm lil-Malāyīn, 1410/1990.

Khaṭīb. Muʿjam =

al-Khaṭīb, ʿAbd al-Laṭīf. Muʿjam al-qirāʾāt. 11 vols. Damascus, Dār Saʿd al-Dīn, 1422/2002.

al-Khāzin. Tafsīr =

al-Khāzin, ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn ʿAlī b. Muḥammad b. Ibrāhīm. Lubāb al-taʾwīl fī maʿānī al-Tanzīl. Ed. Muḥammad ʿAlī Shāhīn. 4 vols. Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmiyya; Cairo: Naẓārat al-Maʿārif, 1415/1995.

Kirmānī. Gharāʾib =

al-Kirmānī, Tāj al-Qurrāʾ Maḥmūd b. Ḥamza. Gharāʾib al-tafsīr wa-ʿajāʾib al-taʾwīl. Ed. Shamrān Sarkāl Yūnus al-ʿIjlī. 2 vols. Jeddah: Dār al-Qibla lil-Thaqāfa al-Islāmiyya; Beirut: Muʾassasat ʿUlūm al-Qurʾān, 1408/1988.

Kiyā. Aḥkām =

al-Kiyā al-Harrāsī al-Ṭabarī, Abū al-Ḥasan ʿImād al-Dīn ʿAlī b. Muḥammad b. ʿAlī. Aḥkām al-Qurʾān. Ed. Mūsā Muḥammad ʿAlī and ʿIzzat ʿAbd ʿAṭiyya. 2 vols. Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmiyya, 1403/1983.

Makkī. Hidāya =

Makkī b. Abī Ṭālib al-Qaysī, Abū Muḥammad. al-Hidāya ilā bulūgh al-nihāya. Ed. al-Shāhid al-Būshaykhī et al. 13 vols. Sharjah: Jāmiʿat al-Shāriqa, 1429/2008.

Mālik. Muwaṭṭaʾ =

Mālik b. Anas. Muwaṭṭaʾ al-Imām Mālik. Ed. Muḥammad Muṣṭafā al-Aʿẓamī. 8 vols. Abu Dhabi: Muʾassasat Zāyid b. Sulṭān Āl Nahayān, 1425/2004.

Māturīdī. Taʾwīlāt =

al-Māturīdī, Muḥammad b. Muḥammad Abū Manṣūr. Taʾwīlāt Ahl al-Sunna (Tafsīr al-Māturīdī). Ed. Majdī Bāsallūm. 10 vols. Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmiyya, 1426/2005.

Māwardī. Nukat =

al-Māwardī, Abū al-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Muḥammad b. Ḥabīb. al-Nukat wal-ʿuyūn: Tafsīr al-Māwardī. Ed. Sayyid b. ʿAbd al-Maqṣūd b. ʿAbd al-Raḥīm. 6 vols. Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmiyya and Muʾassasat al-Kutub al-Thaqāfiyya, 1413/1992.

Mujāhid. Tafsīr =

Mujāhid b. Jabr. Tafsīr. Ed. Muḥammad ʿAbd al-Salām Abū al-Nīl. Madīnat Naṣr: Dār al-Fikr al-Islāmī al-Ḥadītha, 1989/1410.

Muqātil. Tafsīr =

Muqātil b. Sulaymān al-Balkhī. Tafsīr Muqātil b. Sulaymān. Ed. ʿAbd Allāh Maḥmūd Shaḥḥāta. 5 vols. Beirut: Muʾassasat al-Tārīkh al-ʿArabī lil-Ṭibāʿa wal-Nashr wal-Tawzīʿ, 1423/2002.

Muqātil. Wujūh =

Muqātil b. Sulaymān al-Balkhī. al-Wujūh wal-naẓā’ir. Ed. Ḥātim Ṣāliḥ al-Ḍāmin. Dubai: Markaz Jumʿat al-Mājid lil-Thaqāfa wal-Turāth, 1427/2006.

Muslim. Ṣaḥīḥ =

Abū al-Ḥusayn Muslim b. al-Ḥajjāj b. Muslim al-Qushayrī al-Naysābūrī. al-Jāmiʿ al-ṣaḥīḥ. [al-Musnad al-ṣaḥīḥ al-mukhtaṣar min al-sunan bi-naql al-ʿadl ʿan al-ʿadl ilā Rasul Allāh ṣallā Allah ʿalayh wa-sallam.] 8 vols. [Istanbul]: al-Maṭbaʿat al-ʿĀmira, 1334/1916.

Naḥḥās. Iʿrāb =

al-Naḥḥās, Abū Jaʿfar Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. Ismāʿīl. Iʿrāb al-Qurʾān. Ed. Zuhayr Ghāzī Zāhid. 5 vols. 2nd ed. Beirut: ʿĀlam al-Kutub and Maktabat al-Nahḍat al-ʿArabiyya, 1405/1985.

Naḥḥās. Maʿānī =

al-Naḥḥās, Abū Jaʿfar Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. Ismāʿīl. Maʿānī al-Qurʾān al-karīm. Ed. Muḥammad ʿAlī al-Ṣābūnī. 6 vols. Makka: Jāmiʿat Umm al-Qurā, 1409/1988.

Nasafī. Tafsīr =

al-Nasafī, Abū al-Barakāt ʿAbd Allāh b. Aḥmad b. Maḥmūd. Tafsīr al-Nasafī: Madārik al-Tanzīl wa-ḥaqāʾiq al-taʾwīl. Ed. Yūsuf ʿAlī Budaywī and Muḥyī al-Dīn Dīb Mustū. 3 vols. Damascus and Beirut: Dār Ibn Kathīr, 1426/2005.

Nasāʾī. Sunan =

al-Nasāʾī, Abū ʿAbd al-Raḥmān Aḥmad b. Shuʿayb b. ʿAlī. Sunan al-Nasāʾī bi-sharḥ al-ḥāfiẓ Jalāl al-Dīn al-Suyūṭī wa-ḥāshiyat al-imām al-Sindī. 8 vols. [Cairo]: al-Maṭbaʿat al-Miṣriyya, 1348/1930. Rept. 8 vols. in 4. Beirut: Dār Iḥyāʾ al-Turāth al-ʿArabī, n.d.

Nawawī. Sharḥ Muslim =

al-Nawawī, Abū Zakariyyā Yaḥyā b. Sharaf. Sharḥ Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim. Ed. Khalīl Maʾmūn Shīḥā. 19 vols. in 10. Beirut: Dār al-Maʿrifa, 1994.

Qummī. Gharāʾib =

al-Qummī al-Naysābūrī, Niẓām al-Dīn al-Ḥasan b. Muḥammad b. Ḥusayn. Gharāʾib al-Qurʾān wa-raghāʾib al-Furqān. Ed. Zakariyyā ʿUmayrān. 6 vols. Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmiyya, 1416/1996.

Qurṭubī. Tafsīr =

al-Qurṭubī, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. Aḥmad. al-Jāmiʿ li-aḥkām al-Qurʾān wal-mubayyin li-mā taḍammanahu min al-Sunna wa-āy al-Furqān. Ed. ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿAbd al-Muḥsin al-Turkī and Muḥammad Riḍwān ʿAraqsūsī. 24 vols. Beirut: Muʾassasat al-Risāla, 1427/2006.

Qushayrī. Tafsīr =

al-Qushayrī, Zayn al-Islām Abū al-Qāsim ʿAbd al-Karīm b. Hawāzin b. ʿAbd al-Mālik al-Naysābūrī. Laṭāʾif al-ishārāt: Tafsīr ṣūfī kāmil lil-Qurʾān. Ed. Ibrāhīm Bayyūnī. 6 vols. Cairo: al-Hayʾat al-Miṣriyya al-ʿĀmma lil-Taʾlīf wal-Nashr, 1390/1971. Rept. 2000 in 3 vols.

Rāghib. Mufradāt =

al-Rāghib al-Aṣfahānī, Abū al-Ḥusayn al-Qāsim b. Muḥammad b. al-Mufaḍḍal. Mufradāt alfāẓ al-Qurʾān. Ed. Ṣafwān ʿAdnān Dāwūdī. 4th ed. Damascus: Dār al-Qalam, 1430/2009.

Rāghib. Tafsīr =

al-Rāghib al-Aṣfahānī, Abū al-Ḥusayn al-Qāsim b. Muḥammad b. al-Mufaḍḍal. Tafsīr al-Rāghib al-Aṣfahānī. Ed. Muḥammad ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz Basyūnī et al. 5 vols. Ṭanṭā: Kulliyyat al-Ādāb, 1420/1999; Makka: Jāmiʿat Umm al-Qurā, 1422/2001; Riyadh: Dār al-Waṭan, 1424/2003.

Rāzī. Tafsīr =

al-Rāzī, Fakhr al-Dīn Muḥammad b. ʿUmar. Tafsīr al-Fakhr al-Rāzī al-mushtahar bil-Tafsīr al-kabīr wa-Mafātīḥ al-ghayb. Ed. Muḥammad Muḥyī al-Dīn ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd et al. 32 vols. Cairo: al-Maṭbaʿat al-Bahiyya, 1357/1938. Rept. Beirut: Dār al-Fikr, 1401/1981.

Samʿānī. Tafsīr =

al-Samʿānī al-Tamīmī al-Marwazī, Manṣūr b. Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Jabbār. Tafsīr al-Qurʾān. Ed. Abū Tamīm Yāsir b. Ibrāhīm and Abū Bilāl Ghunaym b. ʿAbbās Ghunaym. 6 vols. Riyadh: Dār al-Waṭan, 1418/1997.

Ṣamarqandī. Baḥr =

Abū al-Layth al-Samarqandī, Naṣr b. Muḥammad b. Ibrāhīm. Tafsīr al-Samarqandī al-musammā Baḥr al-ʿulūm. Ed. ʿAlī Muḥammad Muʿawwaḍ et al. 3 vols. Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmiyya, 1413/1993.

Samīn. Durr =

al-Samīn al-Ḥalabī, Aḥmad b. Yūsuf. al-Durr al-maṣūn fī ʿulūm al-Kitāb al-Maknūn. Ed. Aḥmad Muḥammad al-Kharrāṭ. 11 vols. Damascus: Dār al-Qalam, 1406-1415/1986-1994.

Saraqusṭī. Afʿāl =

al-Saraqusṭī al-Maʿāfirī, Abū ʿUthmān Saʿīd b. Muḥammad b. al-Ḥaddād. Kitāb al-Afʿāl. Ed. Ḥusayn Muḥammad Muḥammad Sharaf and Muḥammad Mahdī ʿAllām. 2nd ed. 4 vols. in 5. Cairo: al-Hayʾat al-ʿĀmma li-Shuʾūn al-Maṭābiʿ al-Amīriyya, 1413/1992.

Ṣāwī. Ḥāshiya =

al-Ṣāwī, Aḥmad b. Muḥammad al-Mālikī. Ḥāshiyat al-ʿAllāmat al-Ṣāwī ʿalā Tafsīr al-Jalālayn. With al-Maḥallī and al-Suyūṭī’s Tafsīr al-Jalālayn. 4 vols. Cairo: al-Maktabat al-Kubrā, 1295/1878. Rept. Beirut: Dār al-Jīl, n.d.

Shāfiʿī. Musnad =

al-Shāfiʿī, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. Idrīs. Musnad al-Imām al-Shāfiʿī tartīb al-Amīr Abī Saʿīd Sanjar b. ʿAbd Allāh al-Nāṣirī al-Jāwilī. Ed. Māhir Yāsīn al-Faḥl. 4 vols. Kuwait: Gharās lil-Nashr, 1425/2004.

Shawkānī. Fatḥ =

al-Shawkānī, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī b. Muḥammad. Fatḥ al-Qadīr al-jāmiʿ bayn fannay al-riwāya wal-dirāya min ʿilm al-tafsīr. Ed. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān ʿUmayra. 6 vols. Cairo: Dār al-Wafā, 1414/1994.

Shinqīṭī. Aḍwāʾ =

al-Shinqīṭī, Muḥammad al-Amīn b. Muḥammad al-Mukhtār al-Jakanī. Aḍwāʾ al-Bayān fī īḍāḥ al-Qurʾān bil-Qurʾān. 9 vols. Makka: Dār ʿIlm al-Fawāʾid, 1426/2005.

Suyūṭī. Durr =

al-Suyūṭī, Jalāl al-Dīn ʿAbd al-Raḥmān. al-Durr al-manthūr fī-l-tafsīr bil-maʾthūr. Ed. ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿAbd al-Muḥsin al-Turkī. 17 vols. Cairo: Markaz Hajar lil-Buḥūth wal-Dirāsāt al-ʿArabiyya wal-Islāmiyya, 1424/2003.

Suyūṭī. Itqān =

al-Suyūṭī, Jalāl al-Dīn ʿAbd al-Raḥmān. al-Itqān fī ʿulūm al-Qurʾān. Ed. Muṣṭafā Dīb al-Bughā. 2 vols. Damascus and Beirut: Dār Ibn Kathīr, 1414/1993.

Ṭabarānī. Kabīr =

al-Ṭabarānī, Abū l-Qāsim Sulaymān b. Aḥmad. al-Muʿjam al-kabīr. Ed. Ḥamdī ʿAbd al-Majīd al-Salafī. 25 vols. 2nd ed. Baghdad: Wizārat al-Awqāf, 1984-1990. Rept. Cairo: Maktabat Ibn Taymiyya, n.d.

Ṭabarānī. Awsaṭ =

al-Ṭabarānī, Abū al-Qāsim Sulaymān b. Aḥmad. al-Muʿjam al-awsaṭ. Ed. Ṭāriq b. ʿAwwaḍ Allāh b. Muḥammad and ʿAbd al-Muḥsin b. Ibrāhīm al-Ḥusaynī. 10 vols. Cairo: Dār al-Ḥaramayn, 1415/1994.

Ṭabarī. Tafsīr =

al-Ṭabarī, Abū Jaʿfar Muḥammad b. Jarīr b. Yazīd. Tafsīr al-Ṭabarī: Jāmiʿ al-bayān ʿan taʾwīl āy al-Qurʾān. Ed. ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿAbd al-Muḥsin al-Turkī et al. 26 vols. Cairo: Dār Hajar, 1422/2001.

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al-Ṭaḥāwī, Abū Jaʿfar Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. Salāma al-Azdī al-Ḥajarī. Sharḥ maʿānī al-āthār. Ed. Muḥammad Zahrī al-Najjār and Muḥammad Sayyid Jād al-Ḥaqq. 5 vols. Beirut: ʿĀlam al-Kutub, 1414/1994.

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al-Ṭaḥāwī, Abū Jaʿfar Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. Salāma al-Azdī al-Ḥajarī. Sharḥ mushkil al-āthār. Ed. Shuʿayb al-Arnāʾūṭ. 16 vols. Beirut: Muʾassasat al-Risāla, 1415/1994.

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al-Thaʿlabī al-Naysābūrī, Abū Isḥāq Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. Ibrāhīm. al-Kashf wal-bayān al-maʿrūf bi-Tafsīr al-Thaʿlabī. Ed. Abū Muḥammad Ibn ʿĀshūr and Naẓīr al-Sāʿidī. 10 vols. Beirut: Dār Iḥyāʾ al-Turāth al-ʿArabī, 1422/2002.

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al-Thaʿālibī, Abū Zayd ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Muḥammad b. Makhlūf. Tafsīr al-Thaʿālibī al-musammā bil-Jawāhir al-ḥisān fī tafsīr al-Qurʾān. Ed.  ʿAlī Muʿawwaḍ et al. 5 vols. Beirut: Dār Iḥyāʾ al-Turāth, 1418/1997.

Tirmidhī. Sunan =

al-Tirmidhī, Abū ʿĪsā Muḥammad b. ʿĪsā. al-Jāmiʿ al-ṣaḥīḥ. Ed. Aḥmad Muḥammad Shākir et al. 5 vols. 2nd ed. Cairo: Muṣṭafā Bābī al-Ḥalabī, 1398/1978.

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al-Tustarī, Abū Muḥammad Sahl b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Yūnus b. Rafīʿ. Tafsīr. Ed. Muḥammad Bāsil ʿUyūn al-Sūd. Beirut: Manshūrāt Muḥammad ʿAlī Bayḍūn/Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmiyya, 1423/2002.

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al-Wāḥidī al-Naysābūrī, Abū al-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Aḥmad. al-Tafsīr al-basīṭ. Ed. Muḥammad b. Ṣāliḥ al-Fawzān et al. 25 vols. Riyadh: Jāmiʿat al-Imām Muḥammad b. Saʿūd, 1430/2009.

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al-Wāḥidī al-Naysābūrī, Abū al-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Aḥmad. al-Wajīz fī tafsīr al-Kitāb al-ʿazīz. Ed. Ṣafwān ʿAdnān Dāwūdī. Damascus: Dār al-Qalam; Beirut: al-Dār al-Shāmiyya, 1415/1994.

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al-Wāḥidī al-Naysābūrī, Abū al-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Aḥmad. al-Wasīṭ fī tafsīr al-Qurʾān al-majīd. Ed. ʿĀdil Aḥmad ʿAbd al-Mawjūd et al. 4 vols. Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmiyya, 1415/1994.

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al-Baṣrī. Tafsīr Yaḥyā b. Sallām al-Taymī al-Baṣrī al-Qayrawānī. Ed. Hind Shalabī. Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmiyya, 1425/2004.

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Yaḥyā b. Sallām al-Baṣrī. al-Taṣārīf: Tafsīr al-Qur’ān mimmā ishtabahat asmā’uhu wa-taṣarrafat maʿānīh, ed. Hind Shalabī. Amman: Mu’assasat Āl al-Bayt, 2007.

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Yāqūt b. ʿAbdallāh al-Ḥamawī al-Rūmī al-Baghdādī, Shihāb al-Dīn Abū ʿAbd Allāh. Muʿjam al-buldān. 5 vols. Beirut: Dār Ṣādir, 1397/1977.

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al-Zabīdī, Muḥibb al-Dīn al-Sayyid Muḥammad Murtaḍā. Sharḥ al-qāmūs al-musammā Tāj al-ʿarūs min jawāhir al-Qāmūs. Ed. ʿAbd al-Sattār Aḥmad Farāj et al. 40 vols. Kuwait: Wizārat al-Irshād wal-Anbāʾ, 1385/1965.

Zajjāj. Maʿānī =

al-Zajjāj, Abū Isḥāq Ibrāhīm b. Muḥammad b. al-Sirrī. Maʿānī al-Qurʾān wa-iʿrābuh. Ed. ʿAbd al-Jalīl ʿAbduh Shalabī. 5 vols. Beirut: ʿĀlam al-Kutub, 1408⁄1988.

Zamakhsharī. Asās =

al-Zamakhsharī, Jār Allāh Abū al-Qāsim Maḥmūd b. ʿUmar. Asās al-balāgha. Beirut: Dār Ṣādir, 1965. Rept. Beirut: Dār Bayrūt, 1412/1992.

Zamakhsharī. Kashshāf =

al-Zamakhsharī, Jār Allāh Abū al-Qāsim Maḥmūd b. ʿUmar. al-Kashshāf ʿan ḥaqāʾiq ghawāmiḍ al-Tanzīl wa-ʿuyūn al-aqāwīl fī wujūh al-taʾwīl. Ed. ʿAdil Aḥmad ʿAbd al-Mawjūd et al. 6 vols. Riyadh: Maktabat al-ʿUbaykān, 1418/1998.

Zarkashī. Burhān =

al-Zarkashī, Badr al-Dīn Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh. al-Burhān fī ʿulūm al-Qurʾān. Ed. Muḥammad Abū al-Faḍl Ibrāhīm. 3rd ed. 4 vols. Cairo: Dār al-Turāth, 1404/1984.

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