(maghānim, ghanīma, afāʾa, anfāl)

Muzaffar Iqbal and Csaba Okvath

Definitions and Usage

The Qurʾān uses terms derived from three roots to denote booty: gh-n-m, f-y-ʾ, n-f-l. Technical definitions and juristic usage of the terms differentiates between two types of booty: that which is acquired after fighting those at war with Muslims (ahl al-ḥarb) and what is obtained without a fight.

{C}i. C} gh-n-m is used nine times: twice (Q 8:41, 69) as the Form-I verb ghanimtum (“you obtained as booty”); four times (Q 4:94; 48:15, 19, 20) as the noun maghānim (“booty”, sing. maghnam); and three times (Q 6:146; 20:18; 21:78) as the noun ghanam (sheep). Ghanīma (pl. ghanāʾim) “is the booty taken from disbelievers by the force of the fighters (bi-quwwat al-ghuzāt), by overpowering them in a way that elevates the Word of Allah Most High” (Jurjānī, Taʿrīfāt p.162-163; cf.  Shāfiʿī, Umm 4:146; Mahdawī, Tanbīh 2:866; Kāsānī, Badāʾiʿ 7:116; Ibn Qudāma, Kāfī 4:142-152).

{C}ii. {C}f-y-ʾ yields the Form IV verb afāʾa (“to give as booty”), which is used three times (Q 33:50; 59:6-7). In contradistinction to ghanīma, fayʾ is booty taken from the disbelievers without fighting (al-Shīrāzī, Muhadhdhab, bāb qism al-fayʾ; p. 3:302); including jizya and  land tax (kharāj; Ṭabarī, Qurṭubī, Tafsīrs; Ibn al-ʿArabī, Aḥkām, sub 59:7) as well as what the polytheists abandon due to fear and fright (khawfan wa ruʿban) and what is handed over by them willingly as a result of a treaty (al-Māwardī, al-Ḥāwī, p. 8:388; for similar definitions, see, Kāsānī, Badāʾiʿ 7:116; Ibn Qudāma, Mughnī 6:453; Nawawī, Rawḍat 6:354; Ibn Manẓūr, Lisān, al-mīm, faṣl al-ghayn al-muʿjama).

Most exegetes hold that the phrase afāʾa-Llāhu ʿalayk in Q 33:50, those whom your right hand possesses of those whom Allah has granted you as booty, specifically refers to Ṣafiyya bint Ḥuyayy, who was among the captives of the Battle of Khaybar, and Juwayriya bint Ḥāritha, who was among the captives of the Battle of Muṣṭaliq (Ibn Abī Ḥātim, Qurṭubī, Ibn Kathīr, Tafsīrs), both became wives of the Prophet, upon him blessings and peace (See Captives;Wives of the Prophet).

In Q 59:6, afāʾa refers to what was captured from the Madinan Jewish tribe of Banū al-Naḍīr (Samarqandī, Baḥr; Thaʿlabī, Kashf; Māwardī, Nukat): As for what Allah has given as booty from them to His Messenger, you spurred neither horse nor camel for it. But Allah grants His messengers authority over whomsoever He will, and Allah is Powerful over all things. Q 59:7 specifies distribution of this type of booty: That which Allah has given as booty to His Messenger from the people of the towns is for Allah and His Messenger, and for kinfolk, orphans, the needy, and the traveler, so that it does not circulate among your wealthy. Whatsoever the Messenger gives you, take it; and whatsoever he forbids to you, forgo, and reverence Allah. Truly Allah is severe in retribution. The phrase the people of the towns (ahl al-qurā) is variously understood to include the tribes of Banū Qurayẓa, Banū-l-Naḍīr, Fadak (Samarqandī, Baḥr; Thaʿlabī, Kashf), and ʿUrayna (Muqātil, Tafsīr; Baghawī, Tafsīr; Yāqūt, Muʿjam, s.v.), though the majority view holds that this passage refers specifically to the properties abandoned by Banū-l-Naḍīr: “These properties were particularly (khāṣṣatan) meant for the Prophet, upon him blessings and peace, so that he could meet the needs of his family from the income thereof, [but] he [also] used it for purchasing horses and weapons as preparation for jihad” (Bukhārī, Tafsīr al-Qurʾān, bāb qawlihi: mā afāʾa-llāhu ʿalā rasūlihi [Q 59:6]). Abū Jaʿfar Muḥammad b. Jarīr al-Ṭabarī (224-310/839-923) also quotes an opinion of Maʿmar b. Rāshid (d. 154/771) according to which the verse is an implicit reference to jizya and the land-tax (kharāj) (Tafsīr; also see Ibn al-ʿArabī, Aḥkām; Qurṭubī, Tafsīr, all sub Q 59:7), both are also treasury income gained without fighting (ʿafwan wa ṣafwan min ghayri qitāl), taken from non-Muslims living under Muslim rule, in place of the zakat which is incumbent upon Muslims (Thaʿlabī, Kashf).

{C}iii.  {C}n-f-l carries the basic meaning of “to do more than the obligatory” (Rāghib, Mufradāt), it yields the noun nāfila (pl. nawāfil), used once (Q 17:79) in reference to supererogatory prayers and once in Q 21:72, And We gave him Isḥāq and Yaʿqūb in addition”, meaning a grandson given to Ibrāhīm, upon him peace, “as a gift (ʿaṭiyyatan)” (Farrāʾ, Maʿānī).

Juristic usage of the term anfāl (sing. nafal) reflects the lexical sense of being an “additional” blessing conferred upon the Muslim community in general or additional booty for a fighter beyond his normal share. Abū Bakr Muḥammad b. ʿAbdullāh Ibn al-ʿArabī (468-543/1076-1148) says nafal includes both ghanāʾim (booty taken through fighting) and fayʾ (booty gained without fighting) (Aḥkām, 2:377). The Ḥanbalī and the Shāfiʿī Schools consider anfāl to be a conditional bonus (ʿalā sharṭ). For instance, the leader of the army may send a military detachment ahead of the main army to attack the enemy, promising them an additional share on top of their share of in the general distribution of the booty. It can also be given to single out a warrior for his courage or enduring difficulties, or being in the vanguard (ṭalīʿa), or performing reconnaissance duties (Ibn Qudāma, Kāfī, al-anfāl wal-aslāb; Shīrāzī, al-Muhadhdhab 3:294).

The exegetes are not unanimous regarding the precise definition of “anfāl”, al-Ṭabarī, for instance, glosses anfāl as al-ghanāīm (technically derfined as booty acquired by fight); he also includes in it anything that becomes property of Muslims accidentaly, including slaves, animals, horses, armor (dirʿ) or lance (Tafsīr, sub Q 8). Muḥammad b. Muḥammad Abū Manṣūr al-Māturīdī (d. 333/ca.945) defines it as the booty acquired by the Muslim fighter from the people with whomthey are at war (ahl al-ḥarb), or the additional amount that is added to the well-deserved portion (Taʾwīlāt). Aḥmad b. ʿAlī Abū Bakr al-Rāzī al-Jaṣṣāṣ (d. 370/981) says the term can refer to the booty that has become the property of Muslims without fight, but he also quotes the opinion of Mujāhid (21-104/645-722) who holds that it refers to the one-fifth portion (khums; Maʿānī; cf. Māwardī, Nukat). It is also defined as a means for the leader of the army to encourage fighters onward to victory (al-Kiyā, Aḥkām, sub Q 8:1).

Abū-l-Faraj Jamāl al-Dīn Ibn al-Jawzī al-Qurashī al-Baghdādī (510-597/ca.1116-1200) enumerates six possible interpretations of al-anfāl: (i) it refers to al-ghanāʾim (war booty), as per Ibn ʿAbbās (3bh-68/619-688) and ʿIkrima (d. 107/725); (ii) property distributed and permitted by the Prophet, upon him blessings and peace, from the possessions (salab) of the killed warrior to the victor; (iii) slave (ʿabd) or any kind of animal (dābba) that was acquired by the Muslims from the polytheists without fight, as per ʿAṭāʾ [b. Abī Rabāḥ; d. ca. 115/733] and per Ibn ʿAbbās in another transmission from him; (iv) Mujāhid (21-104/645-722) holds that it is the fifth (al-khumus) taken by the Prophet, upon him blessings and peace, from booty; (v) it is the booty taken by a military detachment (al-sarāyā) marching ahead of the army, as per al-Ḥasan [al-Baṣrī; 21-110/642-728]; (vi) it is an increase additional amount given by the leader to specific people to encourage them [to undertake missions] for the sake of advantage [for the army] (Zād, sub Q 8:1).

Four suras (Q 8, 4, 33, 59) contain rulings and details with regard to different types of booty. In addition, a non-Qurʾānic legal term, salab (pl. aslāb), is used in Hadith texts and legal works to denote booty acquired by a warrior from an enemy whom he killed (Aḥmad, 19:180 §12130; Abū Dāwūd, Jihād, fī-l-salab yuʿṭa al-qātil; Ḥākim, 2:142 §2591). Salab is not subject to the rule of the one-fifth (khumus, see below) and hence is not divided into five portions for distribution. This is based on the saying of the Prophet, upon him blessings and peace: “Anyone who has killed an enemy and has proof of that, will possess his booty (fa-lahu salabuhu)” (Bukhārī, Farḍ al-khumus, bāb man lam yukhammis al-aslāb; Jaṣṣāṣ, Aḥkām al-Qurʾān, sub Q 8:41). 

Booty Made Lawful

The question of booty first arose for the Muslim community at the Battle of Badr (2/624) (see Badr), which is also the context of revelation of the 75-verse Sūrat al-Anfāl—called “Sūrat Badr” by Ibn ʿAbbās (3bh-68/619-688), Allah be pleased with him and his father (Suyūṭī, Itqān, Type 17; Muslim, Tafsīr, fī Sūrat Barāʾa wal-Anfāl wal-Ḥashr; Baghawī, Tafsīr, sub Q 8:1; cf. Bukhārī, Tafsīr, bāb qawlihi yasʾalūnaka ʿan al-anfāl). Before the battle, the Prophet, upon him blessings and peace, had sent two Companions to announce, “Let no one loot even a needle from the booty” (Fazārī, Siyar, p. 234 §388). After the battle, the Companions who had stayed back to protect the Prophet claimed an equal share with those who had fought and taken captives and booty. The former said, “We helped you [as a rearguard] (ridʾan lakum) and defended the Messenger of Allah, upon him blessings and peace” (Wāḥidī, Wajīz; Samʿānī, Tafsīr; Māwardī, Nukat). The first verse of Sūrat al-Anfāl settled the matter: They ask you about the booty (anfāl). Say: The booty belongs to Allah and the Messenger, so keep your duty to Allah, and set matters aright among yourself, and obey Allah and His Messenger, if you are believers (Q 8:1).

ʿUbāda b. al-Ṣāmit (d. 34/654 or 45/665), Allah be well-pleased with him, who participated in the Battle, was asked about Sūrat al-Anfāl. He said,

It was revealed concerning us, the people of Badr, when we differed regarding war booty on the day of the Battle. Allah Most High took it away from our hands when we behaved poorly with regards to it (sāʾat fīhi akhlāqunā) and He the Exalted gave authority to His Messenger, upon him blessings and peace, who divided it among us equally. For us, this was all about having reverent fear of Allah (taqwā Allāh), obedience to the Prophet, upon him blessings and peace, and amelioration” (Tafsīrs of Ṭabarī, Baghawī, Māturīdī, sub Q 8:1; Bayhaqī, Sunan 6:478).

Booty was made lawful to the Muslim community as divine benevolence and a distinct merit granted to the Prophet, upon him blessings and peace, who said,

I have been given five [things] which were not granted to any [Prophet] before me: Every Prophet was sent exclusively to his own people, whereas I have been sent to all—the red and the black; booty (al-ghanāʾim) was made lawful for me; they were never made lawful to anyone before me; the earth has been made blessed and pure for me and a place of prostration, so whenever the time of prayer comes for any one of you, let him pray wherever he is; I have been supported by overpowering fear (bil-ruʿb) from the distance of one month; and I have been granted intercession(Muslim, Masājid wa mawāḍiʿ al-ṣalāt; Bukhārī, Ṣalāt, qawl al-nabī ṣallā Allāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam: juʿilat lī al-arḍ masjidan, with a slightly different order).

Aḥmad b. ʿAlī Ibn Ḥajar al-ʿAsqalānī (773-852/1371-1449) explains that some previous Prophets were not enjoined to wage jihad and consequently had no war booty, while Prophets who waged jihad were not permitted to make use of the booty, and a fire would descend from heaven to consume the booty (Fatḥ, qawluhu bāb al-tayammum al-basmala qablahu, 1:438; Tafsīrs of Ṭabarī, Baghawī, Samarqandī, sub Q 8:69). Two other hadiths relate the lawfulness of booty as divine benovalence and mercy: “Booty was not permitted for anyone before us; then Allah permitted it for us as He saw our weakness and incapacity (ḍaʿfanā wa-ʿajzanā), so He permitted it for us” (Nasāʾī, Sunan, 8:144§8827; Ibn Ḥibbān, Ṣaḥīḥ, 11:135-393 §4807; Ibn Ḥajar, Fatḥ, 6:223; cf. Bukhārī, Farḍ al-khumus, qawl al-nabī ṣallā Allāhu ʿalayhi wa sallam: uḥillat lakum al-ghanāʾim); “Allah Most High nourishes us with war booty (aṭʿamanā al-ghanāʾim), as a mercy by which He has mercy upon us and as a relief (wa-takhfīfan) for what He knows of our weakness” (Nasāʾī, Siyar, man yamnaʿu al-imāma min ittibāʿih; Ibn Ḥibbān, Ṣaḥīḥ, al-ghanāʾim wa qismatihā, dhikr taḥlīl Allāh jalla wa ʿalā al-ghanāʾim). Ibn Ḥajar points out that these Prophetic sayings confirm that when one presents a weakness to Allah Most High, one is necessarily granted from His bounty (faḍl) (Ibn Ḥajar, Fatḥ, 6:223).

Booty as a Test

A second issue that arose on the day of Battle of Badr was in relation to Makkan disbelivers who had been captured by Muslim fighters. What was to be done with these men, most of whom had tortured and persecuted Muslims in Makka? After the initial debate, the Prophet, upon him blessings and peace, did not execute them, as some Companions had suggested and, instead, he released almost all of them after taking ransom (see Badr). A Divine rebuke followed: It is not for any Prophet to take captives until he has made slaughter in the land (ḥattā yuthkhina fī-l-arḍ). You desire the lure of this world, but Allah desires [for you] the Hereafter; and Allah is Mighty, All-Wise. Had it not been for a decree of Allah which had gone before, an awful doom would have come upon you on account of what you took (Q 8:67-68). The lure of this world is explained as the lure of the booty which enticed some Muslims who turned their attention toward taking possession of the booty (aslāb) of the polytheists at the expense of focusing on the battle (Samarqandī, Baḥr; Muqātil, Tafsīr). The rebuke is, however, immediately followed (Q 8:69) by permission to consume the booty you have taken, lawfully and in a good way, and believers are reminded to be conscious of Allah, the Most Forgiving and Merciful. “By this verse, Allah Most High declared that booty is permitted and lawful for this Community, because it was prohibited before this for all previous nations (Khāzin, Tafsīr).

The allure of booty was also a severe test for the Muslim community on the occasion of the Battle of Uḥud, fought in Shawwāl 3/March 625 in the valley before Mount Uḥud, some five kilometers north of Madina. Before the Battle, the Prophet (upon him blessings and peace), had appointed a group of archers at a hilltop, instructing them to remain there no matter which way the Battle went. But, against the clear instructions of the Prophet, upon him blessings and peace, when the archers saw polytheists fleeing the field in defeat, most of them left their position on the hilltop in pursuit of booty. “Greediness and craving (al-raghba) for booty overwhelmed them” (Ibn Ḥajar, Fatḥ, qawluhu bāb ghazwat Uḥud). This turned the tide of the Battle as the retreating polytheists came back from behind the hill and attacked the now scattered Muslims. The Prophet, upon him blessings and peace, was injured and a rumour spread quickly that he had been killed. Q 3:152 was revealed in this context with a Divine rebuke, among you there some who desire this world. ʿAbdullāh b. Masʿūd (d. 32/ca.652), Allah be well-pleased with him, said, “We thought that no one among us desired this world until this verse was revealed; thus we realized that there were some among us who did desire this world” (Samarqandī, Baḥr, sub Q 3:152). The verse also praises those who desire the Hereafter (rather than this world), which Ibn ʿAbbās said refers to those who remained at their appointed station (Ibn Abī Ḥātim, Tafsīr). Seeing that the Muslims’ flank was undefended, “the enemy turned against them and disaster hit them” (Suhaylī, Rawḍ 6:86). Several exegetes call this pursuit of booty by the archers “plunder” (nahab) (Baghawī, Tafsīr, Zamakhsharī, Kashshāf; Ibn ʿAṭiyya, Muḥarrar, sub Q 3:152), because what they sought as wealth was not lawfully distributed. The outcome was that Allah Most High gave them one distress after another (ghamman bi-ghamm, Q 3:153). The first distress was the turning of the tide of the battle and chance to obtain lawful share of booty; the second was the toll in terms of martyrs, injuries, and defeat; the third was the extreme distress that spread due to the rumour that the Prophet himself had been killed (Ibn Abī Ḥātim, Baghawī, Tafsīrs, sub Q 3:153).

Q 4:94 instructs the believers to practice utmost caution with respect to what they find alluring while on the path of Allah: O you who believe! When you go forth in the way of Allah, discern and say not unto him who offers you peace, “You are not a believer,” seeking the ephemeralities of the life of this world, for with Allah are abundant booty. Thus were you yourselves beforehand, but Allah conferred His favor upon you, so be discerning; truly Allah is ever aware of whatsoever you do. According to one explanation, the verse was revealed in connection with a military detachment—led by Muḥallim b. Jaththāma (Ṭabarī, Ibn Abī Ḥātim, Tafsīrs; Jaṣṣāṣ, Aḥkām) or Usāma b. Zayd (Ibn Kathīr, Tafsīr)—which met a man who had some wealth with him and who greeted them, saying “There is no deity except Allah and Muḥammad is the Messenger of Allah” (Muqātil, Ṭabarī, Tafsīrs; Māturīdī, Taʾwīlāt). Some of the Muslims, however, doubted his testimony of faith and Muḥallim (Ibn ʿAṭiyya, Muḥarrar; Qurṭubī, Tafsīr) or Usāma b. Zayd (Ibn ʿAbd al-Salām, Qurṭubī, Bayḍāwī, Tafsīrs; Ibn Hishām, vol.:2:626) killed him. When the incident was reported to the Prophet, upon him blessings and peace, he expressed his displeasure, and asked why did you kill him after the testimony of faith had been proclaimed. When Usāma said that he was only pronouncing it out of fear, the Prophet, upon him blessings and peace, said, “Did you open up his heart? Richness does not lie in the abundance of worldly good, but richness is the richness of the soul” (Bukhārī, Riqāq, al-ghinā ghinā al-nafs; Muslim, Zakāt, laysa al-ghinā ʿan kathrat al-ʿaraḍ). They were aspiring for the goods of this worldly life (ʿaraḍ al-ḥayāt al-dunyā)—“for a trifling war booty” (ghunayma; Tabarī, Tafsīr). The verse reminds the believers of much more booties [present] with Allah, which include His bestowing of sustenance and choicest Blessings (fawāḍil niʿamih), thus it is better for the members of the Community to obey Him in His commands and prohibitions so that He can reward them for their obedience (Ṭabarī, Tafsīr) in the Hereafter and in Paradise(Muqātil, Tafsīr).

The wealth associated with booty is held as a sacred trust: It is not for any Prophet to defraud (al-ghulūl) and whosoever defrauds will bring what he obtained by fraud on the Day of Resurrection. Then every soul shall be paid what it has earned in full, and they shall not be wronged (Q 3:161). The key term in this verse—al-ghulūl—is variously explained by the exegetes, but all explanations are linked to booty (Tafsīrs of Ṭabarī; Baghawī; Qurṭubī). Ṭabarī’s preference is to read the verse as a descriptive statement, meaning, it is to inform people that the Prophet does not do such a thing. The Prophet, upon him blessings and peace, included “defrauding with respect to booty,” (ghulūl) (see Cheating) among the enormities (kabāʾir) (Jaṣṣāṣ, Aḥkām). He said, “anyone whose soul leaves his body and he is free of three things, will enter Paradise: arrogance (kibr), stealing from the booty (ghulūl), and debt (dayn)” (Ḥākim, Mustadrak p. 2:31). 

Distribution of Booty

The basic principle for the distribution of booty is mentioned in Q 8:41: And know that whatsoever you take as booty (ghanimtum), one-fifth of it is for Allah and the Messenger, the kinsfolk, the orphans, the needy, and the traveler, if you believe in Allah and what We sent down upon Our servant on the Day of Discrimination, the day the two hosts met—and Allah is Powerful over all things.

The exegetes and jurists elaborate on Prophetic distribution of booty acquired by fighting (al-ghanīma) and they disagree about the booty acquired without fighting. Booty acquired after fighting is to be divided into five equal portions, of which four-fifths are distributed among the fighters (Shāfiʿī, Ṭabarī, Ibn Abī Ḥātim, Tafsīrs; Māturīdī, Taʾwīlāt; Jaṣṣāṣ, Aḥkām). According to Abū Yūsuf, Mālik, al-Thawrī, al-Awzāʿī (88-157/707-774), and al-Shāfiʿī, the footsoldier gets one portion (sahm wāḥid) and the mounted soldier receives three portions, based on the practice of the Prophet, upon him blessings and peace, during the Battle of Khaybar (Bukhārī, Maghāzī, ghazwat Khaybar; Māturīdī, Taʾwīlāt). A second opinion, mentioned by Aḥmad b. ʿAlī Abū Bakr al-Rāzī al-Jaṣṣāṣ (d. 370/981), is that Abū Ḥanīfa assigned two shares to the horseman and one share to the footsoldier (Aḥkām, sub Q 8:41; Kāsānī, Badāʾiʿ 7:126). The remaining one-fifth (al-khumus) is further divided into five equal parts:

i.                    The first portion is for Allah and His Messenger. Abū al-ʿĀliya al-Riyāḥī (d. ca. 90/709) reports that the Prophet used a handful of booty for the curtain of the Kaʿba (as the portion of Allah, sahm Allāh) prior to the remainder’s division into five equal portions, one of which was for him—but Ibn ʿAbbās and all others note that the portion of Allah and the portion of the Prophet have been made one (sahm wāḥid) (Māturīdī, Taʾwīlāt; Māwardī, Nukat; see also Ṭabarī, Baghawī, Tafsīrs; Jaṣṣāṣ, Aḥkām; Samarqandī, Baḥr).

ii.                 The second portion is for near relatives (li-dhawī al-qurbā), that is close relatives of the Prophet, upon him blessings and peace (Samarqandī, Baḥr). Al-Māwardī mentions three interpretations of this phrase: it refers to (i) Banū Hāshim exclusively, per Mujāhid; (ii) the entire tribe of Quraysh; or (iii) Banū Hāshim and Banū al-Muṭṭalib (Nukat). Abū al-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Aḥmad al-Wāḥidī al-Naysābūrī (d. 468/1075) holds the latter view, for they cannot be given charity (ṣadaqāt) (see Almsgiving; Zakāt) (Wajīz; Baghawī, Tafsīr). The majority accept this view (Ṭabarī, Tafsīr; Thaʿlabī, Kashf), based on the opinion of Muḥammad b. Idrīs al-Shāfiʿī (150-204/767-819) (Tafsīr, sub Q 8:41).

iii.               The third portion is for the orphans(al-yatāma), namely those Muslim children whose father is deceased and who have not reached the age of legal maturity (Māwardī, Nukat).

iv.               The fourth portion is for the needy (al-masākīn), namely the destitute (ahl al-fāqa) (Makkī, Hidāya), those who cannot earn what suffices for their living (Māwardī, Nukat).

v.                  The fifth portion is for the traveler (ibn al-sabīl), one who is far from home and land, and thus in need of support (Wāḥidī, Wajīz; Samʿānī, Tafsīr).

The disagreement regarding the distribution of nafal is summed up by Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd al-Ḥaqq b. Ghālib Ibn ʿAṭiyya al-Andalusī (d. 481-541/1088-1147), who says, “a group says there is no nafal after the Prophet, upon him blessings and peace, but the majority view is that nafal remains valid until the Day of Resurrection. The leader of the army (imām al-jaysh) can distribute it according to his personal deliberation (ijtihād), keeping in view the common benefit of the Muslims; it can be used to urge people to support the military cause with bravery and to encourage them to fight the enemy” (Muḥarrar, sub Q 8:1).

After the death of the Prophet, upon him blessings and peace, new circumstances—such as manifold increase of Muslim population and immense growth of territories which came under the rule of Islam—led to the development of systematic jurisprudence regarding booty; further details regarding the distribution of booty are found in the legal works cited.


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See also

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